cod test procedure for wastewater pdf
Reading Assignment. High COD concentration observed in the wastewater might be due to the use of chemicals, which are organic that is oxygen demand in nature. The PARTICULATE XCOD/VSS RATIO(F cv) 10 VSS General Discussion The organic carbon in water and wastewater consists of multiple organic compounds in various oxidation states. Download Free PDF. Procedure a. 11.
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Procedure: Place Approximately 500ml Of Sample In a clean blender bowl and homogenizze at high speed for two minutes. Mix well to dissolve and make up to 500 ml of distilled water. Samples are taken in individual bottles at the time of the event and each sample is analyzed. Aliquot 2 mL of sample or standard into each vial and replace the cap. STUDY OF WATER QUALITY BY PHYSIOCHEMICAL METHOD (PH, HARDNESS, COD, DO, ALKALINITY, The basis for the COD test is that nearly all organic compounds can be fully oxidized to carbon dioxide with a strong oxidizing agent under acidic conditions. . Oxygen demand is a measure of the amount of oxidizable substances in a water sample that can lower DO concentrations (Nemerow, 1974; Tchobanoglous and Schroeder, 1985). V = milliliters of sample used for the test. Introduction Chemical oxygen demand (COD) is defined as the amount of a specified oxidant that reacts with the sample under controlled conditions. oxidizable organic compounds reduce the dichromate ion (cr 2 o 7 2-) to the chromic ion (cr3+). Prepare a reagent blank by repeating step 3 through 6, substituting2 ml of distilled water in place of sample. 12. COD: The common method for COD is method 410.4. 2. Wastewater treatment facilities come in Levels 1 through 4 Water Quality 6 74 VIII The primary cause of blindness in Australia and New Zealand for people over the age of 55 years is a Solids Handling Answers to your water questions Answers to your water questions. Processing equipment: System used to partially treat wastewater. 2. Replace and tighten the cap. Other related analytical parameters are biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), total organic carbon (TOC), and total oxygen demand (TOD). Various processes that have been successfully developed for wastewater treatment (treatment of industrial wastes/effluents) have been surveyed with special reference to biological treatment including design of bioreactors. The Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) test is an operationally defined test that is a measure of the potential oxygen consumption of wastewaters and in a few cases of other waters. The amount of chemical oxygen demand determines the degree of water pollution by organic material. Rajindar Singh, in Membrane Technology and Engineering for Water Purification (Second Edition), 2015. Introduction The Chemical Oxygen Demand, or COD, is a measurement of the amount of material that can be oxidized (combined with oxygen) in the presence of a strong chemical oxidizing agent.Since the COD test can be performed rapidly, it is often used as a Civil Law and Procedure; Title 35. characteristics of the wastewater flow at certain times of the day, for certain parameters, such as high or low pH, or for high or low flow events. Critical elements of the TSS analytical procedure include: 1. COD standards can also be purchased. 1.
Even very low amounts of cationic polymeric coagulants in
COD TEST (GROUP 3) SECTION 4. COD often is used as a measurement of pollutants in wastewater and natural waters. 5220 CHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND (COD)*#(102) 5220 A. Wastewater Practice Test . They are also characterised as being volatile or non-volatile. Explanation: COD/TOC ratio: (i) The total carbonaceous orgaincs present in given wastewater can be ascertained computing TOC of the wastewater, by converting the carbonaceous organics to CO 2, which is measured by infra-red analysis, and converted instrumentally to the organic carbon content. Knowledge of various computer programs. Add 1.5 mL of potassium dichromate reagent - digestion solution to each of the three COD vials. Read pages 58-59 and 106 in Basic Laboratory Procedures for Wastewater Examination. DISADVANTAGES OF COD TEST The major disadvantage is that the results are not directly applicable to 5-day BOD results without correlation studies over a long period of time. Ten millilitres of waste water sample were poured into three 100 millilitre conical flasks labelled Test1, Test2, and Test3. Chemical Oxygen Demand Assoc. Therefore, COD > BOD The differences . lakes and rivers) or wastewater, making COD a useful measure of water quality. To understand the oxidation of oxidize able matter with a known amount of potassium
impact wastewater treatability (e.g., temperature, color, pH, turbid-ity, odor). blending the sample ensures a auniforum distribution of suspended solids and thus improves the accuracy of test results. A range of cod test procedure for wastewater information are available on echemi.com. 4.1 GENERAL TERMS Applicant: Person or legal entity that makes a request for verification. The test procedure was as described in Determination of optimal S 0 /X 0 section, and the COD concentration corresponding to the test time was tested by sampling. Note: if multiple wastewater samples Caution the tubes and solutions inside will become very hot upon addition of samples/standards, handle them carefully.
Both ranges can be used if expected results are unknown. Electrocoagulation (EC) is a technique used for wastewater treatment, wash water treatment, industrially processed water, and medical treatment. Procedure a. NON-BIODEGRADABLE SOLUBLE COD(nbsCOD,S Filtered COD test in the influent and filtered COD in the effluent. COD testing typically involves digestion of the water sample in a sealed vial with potassium dichromate and sulfuric acid at 150C for 2 hours. prevented by an inhibitor. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) test is commonly used to indirectly measure the amount of organic compounds in water. 1.0 OBJECTIVES To determine the organic oxidize able matters content of water samples. Prof. Kozet YAPSAKLI . Boil this for one minute. COD Testing Advantages. Procedure: 1. PDF An Intelligent Approach for Cyberbullying Detection and Prevention Dr. Vijayakumar V., Dr. Hari Prasad D., Adolf P. COD Ratio as Indicator for Wastewater and Industrial Water Pollution Ali Ch. solids in wastewater can be classified as suspended, settleable, colloidal, or dissolved. The consumption of wastewater, regarded to be representative of the load in pollution of this wastewater. 4 (6.4) in the ratio of 10 mg to 1 mg chloride, based upon the mg of chloride in the sample aliquot and 5 mL of sulfuric acid (6.7). COD often is used as a measurement of pollutants in wastewater and natural waters. Pre heat the COD reaction to Iso c. Carefully remove the cap of COD digestion Reagent vial. COD is most suitable for rapid and frequent monitoring of treatment plant efficiency and water quality. EMS Codes & MDLs Ensure that the detection limits reported by the laboratory are sufficient to meet any applicable The MDLs listed below are achievable for this method in a typical laboratory environment. The Hydrogen Peroxide can also be removed by making the sample (100 mL) alkaline, bring to a boil, and add 0.05 grams of Nickel sulfate. A COD reactor/heating (150 C) block and a colorimeter are turned Biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) have been globally acknowledged as indicators for organic load in wastewater [125, 126]. Results are defined as the mg of O 2 consumed per liter of sample. the sample is reacted with an acidic solution of potassium dichromate in the presence of a catalyst (silver) and digested. Add 10 ml conc. Performing COD testing the right way is important in determining wastewater treatment effectiveness and can help diagnose any problems in treatment. In this blog, well cover what chemical oxygen demand is, how to test it, and how to get the best equipment for your tests. A chemical oxygen demand (COD) test is used to measure the amount of organic compounds in a water sample. maintenance procedure, or other management practice. water and wastewater testing. This involves a two hour digestion at high heat under acidic conditions in which potassium dichromate acts as the oxidant for any organic material present in a water sample. Methods C and D were used for samples with chemical oxygen demand (COD) values of up to 400 mg l-1. Method E was used where large numbers of samples were analysed and where it was considered appropriate to reduce the manipulative operations within the test, especially the dilution of samples. Pre-prepared low-range or high-range vials are selected for the COD test based on expected results. Pre heat the COD reaction to Iso c. Carefully remove the cap of COD digestion Reagent vial. 3.
Test Procedure BOD: BOD is determined by incubating sealed water under a specific temperature sample for five days and measuring the loss of oxygen from the beginning of the test. and . D A mercury-free small scale (2 ml) flask digestion procedure using chromium(III) potassium sulphate and silver nitrate solutions. Electrocoagulation has become a rapidly growing area of wastewater treatment due to its ability to remove contaminants that are generally more difficult to remove by filtration or chemical treatment systems, such as emulsified oil, Remark : - Sampling procedure is with reference to below standards: 1) South Australia EPA Guidelines (June 2007), Regulatory Monitoring and Testing Water and Wastewater Sampling. characteristics of the wastewater flow at certain times of the day, for certain parameters, such as high or low pH, or for high or low flow events. 3) Add slowly 5ml H 2 SO 4 reagent while mixing to dissolve HgSO 4. Seven small wastewater treatment plants were chosen for evaluation. Read pages 58-59 and 106 in Basic Laboratory Procedures for Wastewater Examination. They are also characterised as being volatile or non-volatile. Definition The COD (chemical oxygen demand) expresses the amount of oxygen originating from potassium dichromate that reacts with the oxidizable substances contained in 1 l of water under the working conditions of the specified procedure. It measures the capacity of water to consume oxygen during the decomposition of organic matter and the oxidation of inorganic chemicals such as Ammonia and nitrate. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) determines the amount of oxygen required for chemical oxidation of organic matter using a strong chemical oxidant, such as, potassium bichromate under reflux conditions. 5. Ill reply to your message as soon as possible. Prepare a 30-mg/L COD standard solution as follows: a. Criminal Law and Procedure; Title 36. Most industrial wastewater treatment plants use chemical oxygen demand (COD) rather than the BOD5 test. For more information on our services, call (936) 539-0040 or contact us online today for all of your wastewater treatment needs! The most common tests which sit alongside COD are: In-line coagulation. N is the normality of FAS solution. Add HgSO. blending the sample ensures a auniforum distribution of suspended solids and thus improves the accuracy of test results. This method is more accurate than BOD (with a 5-10% relative standard deviation) and it offers a relatively short analysis time (2-hour digestion time), compared to the 5-day BOD test. to determine the actual concentration to calculate the chemical oxygen demand. WASTEWATER CHARACTERIZATION 1 COD FRACTIONS . COD procedure 1. Although wastewater analytical tests are often separated into categories, it is important to understand that these tests are not independent of each other (Figure 1). ELIMINATION OF NITRITE BYPS. Measurements of oxygen consumed in a 5-d test period (5-d BOD or BOD5, 5210B), oxygen consumed after 60 to 90 d of incubation (ultimate BOD or UBOD, 5210C), and continuous oxygen uptake (respirometric method, 5210D) are described here. by ra ba. Photo 1: Separated solids (source: Stadtentwsserung Gttin-gen) There are different analytical procedures (see figure 3) for analysing solids in wastewater such as settling, filtration, In environmental chemistry, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) is an indicative measure of the amount of oxygen that can be consumed by reactions in a measured solution.It is commonly expressed in mass of oxygen consumed over volume of solution which in SI units is milligrams per litre (mg/L).A COD test can be used to easily quantify the amount of organics in water. 2. 12. 6 4. ra ba. either organic or inorganic COD alone, additional steps not de-scribed here must be taken to distinguish one from the other. The concentrations of COD in all the sampling point were higher than the WHO values of 1000mg/L for the discharged of wastewater into stream. Cool while mixing to avoid possible Turn on your COD reactor and ensure it is set to 150C. Hachs next generation LDO (Luminescent Dissolved Oxygen) Probe requires no calibration for the entire 2 year life of the sensor cap, which means it is ready to start measuring your DO (Dissolved Oxygen) right out of the box. Add 2.5 mL of the sample to each of the two COD vials and the remaining COD vial is for blank; to this COD vial add distilled water.
It can be standardize more easily. BFC 32501. Refer to the EPA Method 1664 for further guidance. 2.0 LEARNING OUTCOMES At the end of the study, the students will be able: a. So if you stay sober for a month you will still pass. The simulation results showed that from 2014 to 2020, Zaozhuang City will realize an annual GDP growth rate of 7.1% with an annual chemical oxygen demand (COD) emissions reduction rate of 5.5%. Independent Researcher.
The COD test uses a chemical (potassium dichromate in a 50% sulfuric acid solution) that oxidizes both organic (predominate) and inorganic substances in a wastewater sample, which results in a higher COD concentration than BOD concentration for the same wastewater sample since only organic compounds are consumed during BOD testing. Photo 1: Separated solids (source: Stadtentwsserung Gttin-gen) There are different analytical procedures (see figure 3) for analysing solids in wastewater such as settling, filtration, The sample contains suspended solid was homogenise 100mL of sample for 30 seconds in a blender. Procedure Firstly, the accuracy of the 20 1500 mg/L range was checked by used 300 mg/L of standard solution. Add 25.0 mL USEPA equivalent for drinking water and wastewater 1. With an added cutting-edge 3D calibration procedure that is conducted prior to shipping, the probe will not drift and is more accurate than ever before. COD is a defined test; the extent of sample oxidation can be affected by digestion time, reagent strength, and sample COD concentration. A method is described for measuring the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of waste water that eliminates the necessity for a chloride correction. The method involves the addition of mercuric sulfate to the sample forming a soluble mercuric chloride complex that completely resists oxidation under the conditions of the COD test. 3. For samples with a COD of 900 mg O2/L, use a smaller portion diluted to 50.00 mL. Swirl until all the mercuric sulfate has dissolved. COD isadened test; the extent of sample oxidation can be affected by digestion time, reagent strength, and sample COD concentration.
Use the test procedure to measure the concentration of the standard solution. Place the vial in preheated COD reaction. Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) estimates the amount of organic matter in : Wastewater industrial effluent and water from a variety of sources. Throughout the booklet, the term chemical oxygen demand (COD) is used to express the C n H a O b N c + Cr 2 O 7 The 2 mL of one of these solutions was used as the sample volume. mand is needed to be measured. Petrochemicals are chemical products derived from petroleum, although many of the same chemical compounds are also obtained from other fossil fuels such as coal and natural gas or from renewable sources such as corn, sugar cane, and other types of biomass (Matar They are widely used to determine the amount of organic contaminants present in surface water or wastewater which are subject to oxidation by strong chemical oxidation, making COD a useful measure of water quality. Read Articles related to cod test procedure for wastewater. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) is a measure of water and wastewater quality. 2. Test Procedure. BOD stands for Biochemical Oxygen Demand, is the amount of oxygen required for bacteria to decompose biodegradable organic matter at certain temperature for a specific period of time. The COD test is often used to monitor water treatment plant efficiency. COD Testing. Processing equipment: System used to partially treat wastewater. GRAF products achieve a cleaning performance of up to 98 % He is a founder of Aster Bio (www In addition, answer either question 1 or 2, and answer either question 4 or 5 Figure 1, on the next page shows how these systems interact Ground Water Discharges Section (Dave J Ground Water Discharges Section (Dave J. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) is a measure of water and wastewater quality.
2 COD FRACTIONS CRYPTIC VARIABLES NAMES FOR BIOWIN & GPS-X . Holding the vial by the cap in an empty sink, gently invert several times to mix the contents they will become very hot during mixing. To overcome This test is based on the fact that a strong oxidizing agent, under acidic conditions, can fully oxidize almost any organic compound to carbon dioxide. Chemical oxygen demand calculation. 5310 A. Prior to completing the COD test, a series of known standards are prepared using KHP (potassium hydrogen phthalate). Average annual discharge limit (AADL): AADL is the higher limit of the prediction interval of the average of 12 time COD value is always greater than the BOD value of a particular water body. BOD measures the oxygen demand for the decomposition of organic material by the microbes in the wastewater. COD measures the oxygen demand for the decomposition of both organic and inorganic materials in wastewater. The result must be 100 mg/L COD respectively, if not the calibration on the instrument used was adjusted. BOD: BOD is determined by incubating a sealed water under specific temperature sample for five days and measuring the loss of oxygen from the beginning of the test. 1. One vial is marked as a Blank, and 3 or 4 vials are marked with known standard levels. Use a pipet to add 3.00 mL of the 1000 mg/L standard solution into a 100-mL volumetric flask. May 2017. Compare the expected result to the actual result. The test for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is a bioassay procedure that measures the oxygen consumed by bacteria 13. Echemi provide cod test procedure pdf related news articles. Take 10 ml of sample into a round bottom reflex flask. A waste water sample is collected. Homogenize your sample by mixing or shaking.
Oxygen demand for the oxidation of both organic and inorganic material in the sewage, the oxygen is demanded. AOS combines cutting-edge technology with decades of expertise to address the most challenging water treatment needs for a diverse range of clients including private businesses, corporations, and government agencies. This method can also be used for flow composites if the flow rate is recorded at the time of sampling. (ii) COD/TOC ratio is considered to be an important factor in monitoring wastewater treatments. oxidizable organic compounds reduce the dichromate ion (cr 2 o 7 2-) to the chromic ion (cr3+). COD Lab Report full. *COD, BOD and SS of this raw represent the COD, BOD and SS of the efuents with the concentration of NO 2 N more than 140 mg l)1. These conventional techniques are time consuming and labour intensive. Most applications of COD determine the amount of organic pollutants found in surface water (e.g. Analytical Procedure Detailed procedures are not provided in this method. Translate. Characterization of wastewater with regard to the organic content is useful from the standpoint of modeling, process control and prediction of effluent quality. 2) Australia EPA (Victoria) Guideline (June 2009), Sampling and Analysis of Waters, Wastewaters, Soils and Wastes.
The COD value due to hydrogen peroxide can be subtracted from the sample COD value. Mix well. Download Free PDF. wastewater is diluted due to heavy rainfall, etc. 3. 4.1 GENERAL TERMS Applicant: Person or legal entity that makes a request for verification. by . 4. C. Analysis Chemical oxygen demand: - is an inexpensive and quick way. B is the volume of FAS in the original sample, in milliliters. ABOUT THE AUTHOR. Free DOCX. Download. Introduction 1. Introduction. E.6 As requested or assigned, participate on team projects to improve work procedures, processes, systems and policies to assist in the development or improvement of Department or Division operations. Procedure: 1) Place 50ml sample in 500ml refluxing flask (for samples with COD>900mg/L use a smaller sample diluted to 50ml). This method is more accurate than BOD (with a 5-10% relative standard deviation) and it offers a relatively short analysis time (2-hour digestion time), compared to the 5-day BOD test. Two (2) vials are then marked for the wastewater sample so the test is completed in duplicate.
Procedure: Part-A: Preparation of standard FAS (Mohrs salt) solution: Weigh accurately the given FAS( Mohrs salt), transfer it in to a 250ml standard flask, dissolve in a little amount of distilled water and a t.t of dilute H 2 SO 4 and make up to the mark with distilled water. The most common tests which sit alongside COD are: cod chemical oxygen demand (cod) is a measure of the oxidizable organic matter content of a wastewater sample. Because of its unique chemical properties, the dichromate ion COD Test Procedures 1. Add 1 g HgSO4, several glass beads, and very slowly add 5.0 mL sulfuric acid reagent, with mixing to dissolve HgSO4. Limitations of each process, design and performance characteristics of different kinds of bioreactors developed starting from stirred Chemical oxygen demand is a measure of the amount of organic matter oxidized by a strong chemical oxidant. solids in wastewater can be classified as suspended, settleable, colloidal, or dissolved. COD Testing Advantages. Search: Wastewater Treatment Questions And Answers Pdf. The demand for oxygen for organic matter is called Biological oxygen demand (BOD). Shake well for uniform concentration. DEFINITIONS The following terms are defined as follows for use in this publication.
This involves a two hour digestion at high heat under acidic conditions in which potassium dichromate acts as the oxidant for any organic material present in a water sample. 8 To assess the comparability of results obtained with individual methods, it is suggested that side-by-side tests be conducted across seasons of the year with the water samples routinely tested in accordance with the most current Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater or EPA alternate test procedure (ATP) guidelines. In this blog, well cover what chemical oxygen demand is, Download PDF Package PDF Pack. The seeding and dilution procedures provide an estimate of the BOD at pH 6.5 to 7.5. The COD test oxidizes a wide range of chemical compounds. 6 4. You'll find the trends and top topics of cod test procedure pdf here. Due to the length of time required to complete the BOD5 test (five days), BOD results provide historical data only and do not facilitate rapid water quality assessment for optimal process control. The consumption of wastewater, regarded to be representative of the load in pollution of this wastewater. Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), assimilable organic carbon (AOC), and chemical oxygen demand (COD) methods may be used